Αρχαιότητες της Κύθνου. Παλαιά και νέα ευρήματα
Στο Π. Τριανταφυλλίδης (επιμ.) 2017. Το Αρχαιολογικό Έργο στα Νησιά του Αιγαίου. Διεθνές Επιστημονικό Συνέδριο, Ρόδος, 27 Νοεμβρίου-1 Δεκεμβρίου 2013, Τόμος Β, Μυτιλήνη: 321-336.
The first human habitation in Kythnos goes back to the Mesolithic era. Excavation at the site of Maroulas was a landmark in the study of Aegean Prehistory. Besides Maroulas, other Mesolithic and Neolithic sites have been observed in various parts of the island. From the beginning of the 3rd millenium BC onwards, the character of the island is defined by the presence of ores: Early Bronze Age copper mines and smelting sites have been investigated at Aspra Kellia, Petra, Punta, Sideri, Paliopyrgos/Aspra Spitia, Skouries, and Lefkes while nearby the aforementioned areas, small Early Cycladic settlements (Kakovolo, Lefkes, Ayios Ioannis) have been located.
Sherds of the Middle and Late Bronze Age have been found on a hill between Agia Irini and Arkoudi as well as on Castro tis Orias, and on Stefani tou Geronymou. Vryokastro, the most important and extensive archaeological site of the island, covers a time span between (10th c. BC – 6th-7th c. AD) and it is considered as the city-“capital” of Kythnos throughout all these centuries. However other significant settlements do exist, like the Archaic or even earlier fortified acropolis on Kastellas, along with isolated towers, and other habitation sites in the countryside connected with metallurgy or agriculture. Sites varying in date from Prehistoric to Late Hellenistic times were located and documented in course of recent surveys throughout the island: Traces of prehistoric habitation were found at Maistralia, Simousi, Aousa, Vathi Rema and Mersinia. Sites of historical times were systematically documented and mapped like the countryside sanctuaries at Fanari and Agia Marina, small scale habitations at Colona, Fykiada, Ayios Loukas, Vathi Rema (Loutra), round or rectagular towers at Taxiarhis (Dryopida), Prof. Ilias, Ano Komi, Taxiarhis (Mersinia), Aspra Kelia, Aspra Spitia, Kolona and Apokrousi. Finally, a fortified farmhouse complex connected with agriculture was located and partly excavated at Maistralia.