Die letzte Elite der mykenischen Welt. Achaia in mykenischer Zeit und das Phänomen der Kriegerbestattungen im 12. – 11. Jahrhundert v. Chr.
Theodoros G. Giannopoulos Ruprecht-Karls University of Heidelberg 2007
Description: 1 vol., 288 p., 33 colour and b/w figures in the text, 3 plates, 79 colour and b/w plates, 29,7x21 cm.
Supervisor: Joseph Maran
Other supervisors: Diamantis Panagiotopoulos
The Last Elite of the Mycenaean World. Achaea in the Mycenaean Age and the Phenomenon of Warrior Burials in the 12th-11th Century B.C.
The aim of the present study is to examine the historical development of Achaea in the Mycenaean period, i.e. the landscape of the north-western Peloponnese that preserved in its place-name up to the present day the designation of a much larger and much more important part of Late Bronze Age Greece. The book is divided into three parts.
Τhe first part has been devoted to the detailed and systematic overview of the natural environment, the ancient sources, and the Mycenaean research history of Achaea. This is followed by a comprehensive list of the hitherto examined Mycenaean sites, as well as by a critical examination of the present state of research. The underlying goal is to provide the increasing number of scholars interested in Achaea’ s prehistoric and particularly Mycenaean archaeology with a reliable starting point and a solid framework for further research.
In the second part of this study the archaeological material from 18 Mycenaean chamber tombs is published. The material presented has been uncovered in four sites of central and western Achaea (Spaliareika Lousikon, Krini-Agios Konstantinos, Leontion-Vragianika and Monodendri). It consists of 71 completely preserved or restored ceramic vessels, 687 sherds, 27 metal objects and at least 350 small finds (cylinder seals, beads, stone tools and conuli). The most important part of this material consists of three warrior burials of LH IIIC date, two from chamber tomb 2 of Spaliareika and the other from the warrior tomb of Krini-Agios Konstantinos. Their publication is the starting point for the detailed examination of the phenomenon of LH IIIC warrior burials in Achaea, discussed in the third part of the book.
For the period under consideration the grave findings discussed in the third part of the study represent the greatest concentration of warrior burials in the Aegean. Despite a lot of uncertainties associated with several of these warrior tombs due to the finding conditions, the insufficient documentation, or the state of publication, it is still possible to examine the main features of this ruling class which can be considered as the last elite of the Mycenaean world. The examination includes the thorough discussion of all relevant finds with particular emphasis on the two warrior burials found in chamber tomb 2 of Spaliareika. Both these burials and the overall context of the tomb in which they were found offer valuable insights into the chronology as well as the social evolution and significance of LH IIIC Achaean warrior burials. In the course of the summarizing consideration of the phenomenon, the archaeological evidence is evaluated from an interdisciplinary viewpoint also encompassing some inquiries related to the field of ancient history. As a result thereof, a coherent historical narrative of Achaea’ s development in the Late Bronze Age and especially in its lattermost phase (LH IIIC) is provided. The general synthesis ends with the formulation of a new hypothesis concerning the association of the place-name “Achaea” with the north-western landscape of the Peloponnese.
PART I 
I. 1. Topography and geographical features of Achaea 
I. 2. Ancient sources – Mythological traditions 
I. 3. Research history of Mycenaean Achaea 
I. 3. 1. Modern population development and archaeological state of research: A critical assessment of their interrelation 
I. 4. List of Mycenaean sites in Achaea 
I. 4. 1. Western Achaea 
I. 4. 2. Central mountainous region 
I. 4. 3. Eastern Achaea (Aigialeia) 
I. 5. Statistics of sites – Historical evaluation 
PART II 
II. 1. The tombs – Architecture, contexts and finds 
II. 1. 1. Spaliareika Lousikon (Σπαλιαρέϊκα Λουσικών) 
II. 1. 2. Krini-Agios Konstantinos (Κρήνη-Άγιος Κωνσταντίνος) 
II. 1. 3. Leontion-Vragianika (Λεόντιον-Βραγιάνικα) 
II. 1. 4. Monodendri (Μονοδένδρι) 
II. 2. The finds 
II. 2. 1. Pottery 
II. 2. 2. Metal finds 
II. 2. 3. Small finds 
PART III 
III. 1. The LH IIIC warrior burials of Achaea 
III. 2. The Tomb 2 of Spaliareika Lousikon 
III. 3. Summarizing consideration of Achaea’ s LH IIIC warrior burials 
Bibliography and lists