Upper Palaeolithic human occupations and material culture at Klissoura Cave 1
Małgorzata Kaczanowska, Janusz K. Kozłowski & Krzysztof Sobczyk Eurasian Prehistory 7:2 (2010): 133-285.
This paper provides the detailed description of the archaeological assemblages retrieved from the sequence of Upper Palaeolithic layers at Klissoura Cave. Layer V (sequence F) furnished the Early Upper Palaeolithic cultural remains dated to about 40 and >33 kyrs (uncalibrated) BP, ascribed to the Uluzzian; the techno-morphological structure of this assemblage is similar to the central Italian Evolved Uluzzian. Layers IV and llla-g (sequences E, Dl, D2) contained a long sequence of Aurignacian occupations with unique clay-lined structures and organized living space. Tool types typical for the Aurignacian sequence are carinated end-scrapers/burins/cores, bladelets (some with fine retouches), splintered pieces; bone points occur with varying intensity. Layer II’’ (sequence D3) contained an assemblage dated to about 31 kyrs BP tentatively attributed to the Final (or Epi-) Uluzzian. Layer III’ (sequence D4) dated to around 30 and 29/28 kyrs BP corresponds to the Early Mediterranean Backed Blade/Bladelet industries which could be the contemporary with the Early “Gravettien indifferencie” from Italy. Layer III’ is overlain by the filling of a transversal ditch (layers 6, 6a, 6/7 of sequence C, probably of anthropogenic origin) containing a mixed Aurignacian and later carinated (from III’’ and particularly III’ layers). Layers II and IIa-d (sequence B) provided the Epigravettian industry corresponding to the late phase of the shouldered point horizon, and dated to ca. 14 kyrs BP. Layers 3, 5, 5a (sequence A) closely resemble the specific type of a Mesolithic industry with blade/bladelet technology which is rooted in the local Epigravettian, possibly influenced by the Sauveterrian and later by the Para-Castelnovian. This full Upper Paleolithic sequence in Klissoura Cave 1 is unique in Greece, as it is more complete than the the known Upper Palaeolithic sequences exposed and studied in Franchthi and Kephalari caves.